Medical Database - Organs

This is a page for assisting those who wish to become Medical Officers and/or Nurses in the fleet. In this document, we have compiled all the races currently in Pegasus Fleet for a look at how their bodies work to assist in learning the basics of Starfleet medicine. For further details, please contact Veronica Constantine at

The heart is a hollow muscle that pumps blood throughout the body by means of the vascular system of arteries and veins. The arteries and veins extend to all parts of the body and thus bruising can occur on any bodily surface.

The lungs are essential for respiration or what is known as breathing. Two lungs are usually the norm for most species, however, there are a few species that have more than two, most notably Klingons. The lungs collect oxygen through a system of bronchi that lead to smaller bronchioles until it finally reaches the alveoli where the gas exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen takes place. The carbon dioxide is expelled from the lungs, while the oxygen is collected and distributed throughout the body.

The Kidneys are organs that serve several essential roles in many humanoids. They are essential to the urinary system and also regulate electrolytes and maintain acid-base balance and regulate the blood pressure of the individual, the latter by maintaining the salt and water balance. They remove bodily wastes which are sent to the urinary bladder and are responsible for the reabsorption of water, glucose, and amino acids.

The liver is a vital organ in humanoids and other vertebrate animals. It has a variety of functions including detoxification, generating protein, and producing biochemical necessary for digestion. It is vital for survival, though artificial livers are being produced. The liver plays a major role in metabolism and also stores glycogen, decomposes red damaged red blood cells, produces hormones and detoxes the body. It also produces bile, an alkaline compound which aids in digestion.

Gall bladder
This small organ aids mainly in fat digestion in humanoids and concentrates the bile produced by the liver. While the loss of the gall bladder is tolerable in some humanoids, others cannot live without it.

The pancreas is a glandular organ that produces several important hormones including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin and also aids in digestion by secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes such as acidophilus and bifidus that assist in the absorption of nutrients and digestion in the small intestine.

The stomach is a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the digestion system which functions as an important organ of the digestive tract in humanoids. It is involved in the second phase of digestion, following chewing. The stomach secretes protein digesting enzymes and strong acids to aid in food digestion though smooth muscular contortions before sending food to the next phase in the digestion process, the small intestines.

Small intestine
This part of the digestive tract follows the stomach and in most humanoids is followed by the large intestine, and is where much of the digestion and absorption of food takes place.

Large intestine
The large intestine is behind the small intestine in some species and behind the secondary intestine in others. In these species, it is called the tertiary intestine. Its function is to absorb water from the remaining part of the food that is indigestible and then to pass waste material from the body. It consists of the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal. This last part is where waste is expelled from the body.

Reproductive system
The reproductive systems of the various species of the Federation and the quadrant vary so greatly that we will speak of them within their own sections.

Central Nervous System
The brain and spinal cord are also called the central nervous system of any humanoid because all neural signals and must be sent through this system to reach any part of the body. The brain is where the main neural actions are made, such as involuntary ones like the diaphragm causing the lungs to breathe or the stomach to make the acids needed for digestion. It is also where voluntary actions are confirmed, such as walking or grasping a cup. The brain in humanoids is where cognitive functions take place, such as creative thinking, vocalizing thoughts, and reading. Some humanoids use more of their brains than others, causing a good deal more capability. The spinal cord is the column of neural tissue that sends all neural signals from the brain to the nerves throughout the rest of the body. The nerves then branch off throughout the rest of the body to receive commands from the brain. They extend from the abdomen to the elbows and knees to the fingers and toes.