Medical Database - Race Specific
This is a page for assisting those who wish to become Medical Officers and/or Nurses in the fleet. In this document, we have compiled all the races currently in Pegasus Fleet for a look at how their bodies work to assist in learning the basics of Starfleet medicine. For further details, please contact Veronica Constantine at email@example.com. The disclaimer may be found at the end of this document.
Aenar are an offshoot of the Andorian race and as such have many similarities. As they evolved in a colder climate, they prefer the colder temperatures, unlike their Andorian cousins who can exist in many different environments. Aenar blood is cobalt based and thus is blue when exposed to the air, making Aenar body chemistry similar to many other species, including Andorian, Bolian, and to an extent, Benzite. Aenar are incapable of receiving blood transfusions or cellular donations from Vulcanoids or other species with copper-based blood; doing so could kill the patient.
Aenar also have an additional circulatory system in addition to the standard one of veins and arteries. It consists of lymph-based osmosis where the blood can ‘seep’ through their bodies by means of chemically regulated osmosis. This helps combat fatigue and damage from cold; however it also requires more food for the higher metabolism and makes Aenar very vulnerable to infection in wounds from energy weapons. Aenar are not very muscular like their Andorian cousins, and have the same strength as a Human would who conducts similar activities.
Aenar skeletons are a blend of bone and cartilage strongly favoring the latter and including large amounts of a secondary blend of the two, an almost chitin-like substance that is bone-hard but cartilage-flexible. Because of this, it takes twice the amount of blunt force to break an Aenar bone as it does to break a comparable Human bone. Inside an Aenar’s skeleton are complimentary compartments separating some internal areas from others by a system of cartilage. The heart, located under the middle of the sternum, is contained with the lungs in one compartment while the stomach and intestines are located in the right side of the individual. The kidneys, liver, gall bladder and pancreas are located in the left side while the uterus and ovaries are located in the lower abdomen. In addition to the internal skeleton, Aenar have an exoskeleton covering much of their bodies. It consists of the same chitin-like blend that makes up many of their bones and covers their limbs and torsos. In the case of the females, it does not extend over the lower abdomen so as to allow for fetal growth. Their eyes are sightless, and thus they have a type of bioelectrical radar that allows them to move without injuring themselves.
They are also telepathic and some are telekinetic, allowing for ease of communication. This has led to a number of neurological diseases and lends to being susceptible to Betazoid diseases such as Zanthi Fever. Their antennae are crucial to these functions and also to their audio senses. Cutting off an antenna would incapacitate an Aenar until it regrew, though this can be accelerated by cranial massage therapy and electrical stimulation. Also crucial to the telepathy of Aenar are certain biochemical compounds found in the brain, mainly metabiaxin, divalactin, and lamproezine. These are found in telepathic species with higher abilities, however metabiaxin is found in nearly all species with esper abilities. The metabiaxin and divalactin are chemically active when the individual is using their telepathy, however the lamproezine is active when they are using their radar. The reproductive system of Aenar is similar to most humanoids in that they have male and female organs. The babies are born in singular births, twins being very rare. Aenar women carry their children for five months, due to the circulatory system unique to them and their Andorian cousins.
Andorians and their subspecies the Aenar have many similarities. As they evolved in a colder climate, Andorian prefer the colder temperatures, unlike their Aenar cousins, can exist in many different environments. Andorian blood is cobalt based and thus is dark blue when exposed to the air, making Andorian body chemistry similar to many other species, including Aenar, Bolian, and to an extent, Benzite. A blood transfusion or cellular donation from a Vulcan or other race with copper-based blood would kill an Andorian patient, though a blood transfusion from a Bolian or Aenar is possible with certain preparations.
Andorians have an additional circulatory system in addition to the standard one of veins and arteries that consists of lymph-based osmosis where the blood can ‘seep’ through their bodies by means of chemically regulated osmosis. This secondary circulatory system helps combat fatigue and damage from cold to prevent frostbite; however it also requires more food for the higher metabolism and makes them very vulnerable to infection in wounds from energy weapons. Andorians are not as strong as a Vulcan or Klingon, but at the same time stronger than a human or Betazoid.
Andorians have skeletons which are a blend of bone and cartilage strongly favoring the latter and including large amounts of a secondary blend of the two, an almost chitin-like substance that is bone-hard but cartilage-flexible. Because of this, it takes twice the amount of blunt force to break an Andorian bone as it does to break a comparable Human bone. Inside an Andorian’s skeleton are complimentary compartments separating some internal areas from others by a system of the chitin-like blend of cartilage and bone. The heart, located under the middle of the sternum, is contained with the lungs in one compartment while the stomach and intestines are located in the right side of the individual. The kidneys, liver, gall bladder and pancreas are located in the left side while the uterus and ovaries are located in the lower abdomen. In addition to the internal skeleton, Andorians have an exoskeleton covering much of their bodies and consists of the same chitin-like blend that makes up many of their bones and covers their limbs and torsos. In the case of the females, it does not extend over the lower abdomen so as to allow for fetal growth.
Their eyes are colorblind, and their antenna allow them to see more of the spectrum such as infrared and ultraviolet, and also balance and assists their audio senses. Cutting off an antenna would incapacitate an Andorian for 24 hours, though they would be able to adjust within a couple of days, though this can be accelerated by cranial massage therapy and electrical stimulation. The reproductive system of Andorian is similar to most humanoids in that they have male and female organs. The babies are born in multiple births of twins or triplets, single births being very rare. Andorian women carry their children for five months, due to the circulatory system unique to them and their Aenar cousins.
Aquans are able to breathe underwater by means of gills on the sides of their neck. Water comes in through the mouth whereupon the gills use tissue to trap oxygen and feed it into saclike lungs which then feed the oxygen to the rest of the body. The lungs are highly sufficient for oxygen retrieval as they live underwater and thus the need for more oxygen. The bones are less dense than humans and but they are somewhat stronger than humans, needing to swim everywhere they go. Their eyes are capable of seeing infrared spectrum as they live very deep under the water. Their fingers are webbed and their feet are somewhat elongated with fins for toes. Their internal organs are similar to human, though they have storage areas for fat for migrations from one part of their world to another. Their skin is scaly and must be moistened on a regular basis if not in water. Aquan women still give birth to their children, normally one child per pregnancy. They lack the normal mammary glands, and their children subsist on food chewed and partially digested by the mother. Their organs are similar to a human’s or Betazoid's, though their body chemistry is copper-based, and thus more similar to a Vulcan's or Romulan's.
Bajorans have iron-based or red blood and thus their body chemistry is extremely similar to humans and have similar characteristics in where their organs are placed. However, in a Bajoran, the kidneys are placed higher in favor of the larger intestines. The nose ridges are not just aesthetic in nature, but also are functional in the olfactory senses in both men and women; the more defined the ridges, the sharper the sense of smell. The sense of smell is stronger in Bajoran women and when pregnant, they are prone to fits of sneezing. Bajoran women carry their children for six months due to an intricate vascular network between mother and child. Bajoran women must be absolutely relaxed to give birth; else the baby will not be born without medical assistance. The Bajoran heart is located at the same place as in a human; however it is mirrored on a horizontal axis where the human heart is mirrored on a vertical axis. Because of this, the Bajoran sternum and back bones are wider than the average humanoid to protect it. Bajoran bones are somewhat less dense than the average humanoid skeleton, making them lighter than many species. However, this is also a weakness as illnesses tend to affect Bajorans more easily than other species such as Klingons or Vulcans.
The blood of the Benzite race cobalt based and so their body chemistry is similar to that of Andorians, Aenar, and Bolians, however it halts after a while due to their dependency on certain gases for survival such as hydrogen and others. Their body temperature normally runs around 31 C (87.8 F) which is much lower than most species. They have three lungs, the third being called the anterior lung in that it is located in the rear-most compartment of the ribs. They have three intestines and two stomachs, called the primary and secondary stomachs and also the primary, secondary, and tertiary intestines. This allows them to retain more nutrients from their food on their watery homeworld. Benzite skeletons are on the lighter side, while both men and women are more muscular than most humanoids due to their ancestry as fish. Benzites have two thumbs on each hand, which are called the anterior and posterior thumbs. Women carry their children for around 32 weeks (8 months) and are generally 50cm (20 in) down the middle of their abdomens due to the size of their children. Benzite children are normally around 5.4kg (12 lb) at birth.
Betazoids have iron-based blood and a body chemistry very similar to Bajorans and humans. Betazoid physiology is similar to human physiology except for a few differences and so indeed Betazoids are capable of interbreeding with humans without medical intervention. However their neural system is remarkably different in the fact that Betazoids are telepathic. The telepathy is developed during adolescence when the paracortex in the brain when it begins to secrete the neurotransmitters metabiaxin and psilosynine, both being chemically active when the individual is using their telepathy. How powerful a Betazoid is determined by the level of neurotransmitters in the brain which in turn is determined by their genes. Betazoid women carry their children for 10 months, the vascular system being slightly less dense than a human’s. Their strength, for both men and women, is comparable to a human, as is the density of their bones. They are capable of eating a wide variety of food, though some Andorian spices can give them indigestion.
Bolians are descended from fish and as such have evolved accordingly. Almost no Bolians have hair, most being bald. A ridge runs down the middle of the head and neck and partway down the chest, along which the pulse of the individual somewhere on the cranium. (See Part I Section B). Bolians have a vascular system that is more intricate than most, left over from their time in the ocean that served to keep them warm. Bolian blood is cobalt-based and blue; it can be used as a transfusion for Andorians or Benzites or other species with cobalt-based blood with some preparation, however it would be toxic to a Vulcan or Romulan and would make them very ill. Their hearts are larger in comparison to other humanoids that also have one heart such as Bajorans or Andorians. Their stomachs and intestines are also larger, lending to most Bolians being larger in size than other humanoids in similar physical condition. The Bolian stomach, gall bladder, and pancreas secrete additional chemicals to the ones in most humanoids and their tongue has a cartilaginous lining, enabling them to consume food that would be toxic to most other humanoids. A Bolian’s skeletal mass is comparable to a human’s but the Bolian would be somewhat weaker and must work harder to reach a certain level of fitness. Bolians are prone to gaining more fat than some humanoids, tending to be more fluff than buff.
Caitians are unique in that their skeletons resemble quadruped felines as much as they resemble humanoids. Their legs more closely resemble the hind legs of cats, with not so much knees as hocks that bend backwards. Their tails are used mainly for balance and freely swing about when nervous or anxious. Similar to most species, Caitians lose the last of their childhood teeth around 10 years of age and grow their adult teeth. However, their canine and molar teeth are much sharper than most other humanoids. The Caitian senses of sight, smell, and sound are highly developed as they retain a great number of characteristics from their feline ancestors. Their olfactory senses are among the most highly developed of any sentient species as is their auditory. Their catlike eyes enable them to see in very low light, in circumstances that would render most other species blind.
Caitian skeletons are thinner and lighter than most species and they have 10 ribs on each side, rather a few less than humans. They are not as strong as a human or even a Bajoran, but have two hearts and thus are able to outrun most other humanoids. They do not have hands but rather paws that have been adapted to holding objects. They are born in twos and threes and their mothers carry them for 10 months, due to the number of children in the womb. Their digestive system is not adapted for eating spicy food or even red meat such as beef or pork instead being more adaptable to fish, fowl, fruit, vegetables and grains. Eating red meat or spicy food could give a Caitian very bad indigestion. Caitians have iron based blood and are capable of using many medications and having blood transfusions to and from several other species.
Capellans appear as rather large humans with very long hair. They are normally around 7 feet tall and as such their organs are correspondingly larger. Their heart is larger in ratio to the body than the average humanoid heart and the lungs are somewhat larger as well. The stomach secretes an additional enzyme that allows Cappellans to eat foods that are indigestible to most humanoids though it will not make them taste any better. Both men and women are much more muscular than most other humanoids, including Klingons, and the skeletons are among the most dense. The olfactory senses are more highly developed than a human, but not as developed as Bajoran or Klingon. Their hearing is only slightly better than the average human, as is their sight. Their sight averages around 20/10 vision and20/0 in some. The due to the large size of the adults, the women carry their young for around 14 months until the child is born. It is unusually painful even among humanoids. Their blood is iron based and thus they are capable of using many generic medications.
Cardassians display both reptilian and mammalian traits in that they are exothermic in that they prefer and to some extent need a hotter environment and they give birth to live young and nurse said young. Their blood is dark brown in color and though the physics of their bodies’ make ups are similar to other races, their body chemistry is not similar due to the chemistry of their blood. Some medications that are usable in Cardassians cannot be administered to any other race. Cardassians are similar to Andorians and Aenar in that they have an exoskeleton save that it is composed entirely of cartilage and they also have a thicker skin than most other humanoids. Their bodies are somewhat thicker than most humanoids, and their tongues and digestive systems are adapted to eating foods more to the taste of reptiles such as snails, fish, and eggs. Their hearts are located higher than in a human’s body and they have three kidneys to assist in the removal of wastes from the types of food they generally consume. Their bodies are more dense than other humanoids as their skeletons are more solid and their muscle more highly developed than some other humanoids.
Deltan physiology is both similar to other humanoids and different. Their brains have a cortex that promotes empathy and limited telepathy and it secretes several neurotransmitters that allow for both telepathy and empathy, including metabiaxin and liposanimide. The liposanimide, in conjunction with the high amount of testosterone produced by the reproductive system, is what causes the famous Deltan pheromones. During sex, all Deltans from puberty onward are telepathic enabled by the pheromones and their limited amount of metabiaxin. Their telepathic abilities extend to being able to communicate with other telepathic species such as Aenar and Betazoids and also the occasional Vulcan. They are also empathic in two ways: they can sense emotions and when someone is lying to them and are also able to relieve pain through touch-empathy. This is unique to the Deltan race and Starfleet has never encountered another race with this trait. Their skeletons are less dense than a human’s, leading to more problems concerning bone diseases, yet they are just as strong. They are able to eat all types of meat, yet the foods that agree the best with them are fruits and vegetables. No Deltan has any body hair save their eyebrows and eyelashes. Their body chemistry is similar to and compatible with Bajorans, humans, and Betazoids due to their iron-based blood.
Though El-Aurians are similar to humans in many ways, they are not identical by any means. They have limited levels of an unknown neurotransmitter that allows them to perceive temporal and dimensional discrepancies and also gives them longer life spans, somewhere around 800-1000+ years. Their bodies retain large amounts of youth hormones through long periods of their lives, up to 700+ years. This is what causes their longer lifespan though as the level of the hormones declines, they start to age quickly. The women carry their children for 14 months, and the children reach adulthood at around 40 years of age. Their skeletons are as dense as some other humanoids such as humans and others, and have around the same amount of muscle. They have eight additional teeth to the 32 of other species, and lose and grow several sets of teeth throughout their lives due to their long lifespans. Their digestive tract is adapted most to game or red meat and grains and vegetables, though they can eat some fruit.
Ferengi are mostly known for their extremely large ears, larger in the men than in the women. Because of this, their hearing is excellent, most likely the best of any humanoid species. Their eyesight is average, though their olfactory senses are somewhat more highly developed due to the ridging, allowing for greater concentration in the olfactory nerves. Their blood is iron based and their body chemistry is compatible with species such as Deltan, human, El-Aurian, though a blood transfusion to or from a Betazoid would need several steps of preparation due to levels of the hormones in each species. Ferengi are completely hairless due to the constant rain of their homeworld. Their teeth and digestive system are adapted to eating such food as slugs, crabs, beetles, and other insects and such animals. Their bodies are also capable of digesting Klingon food such as gagh and bregit lung. The women carry their children for 8 months, and the children reach adulthood around age 17. Their bones are less dense than most humanoids, as is their muscle mass as they are generally among the weakest of the humanoid races. The brain has four lobes, which what is theorized that is responsible for the disability of Betazoids to read their thoughts. Some Betazoid hybrids can read their emotions.
Hefestians are an offshoot of the Vulcan race and as such are very similar biologically. Women carry their children for six months due to the distant Vulcan past as a violent culture. There is a component of their brains called the mesiofrontal cortex though in Hefestians it has no known purpose, though there may indeed be one. Pon farr is unknown to Hefestians as they do not wait seven years to mate. Their sight and hearing are on par with a Vulcan as they live on a similar planet. Their heart is where a human’s liver would be, in the right side, and the liver is where the stomach would be, putting the stomach higher in the chest. Their bones are denser than other humanoids and they are stronger than humans, though not as strong as a Klingon. Their blood is copper-based and green in color, allowing for tissue and blood donations between Hefestians and other species such as Romulans, Vulcans, and others. They have 3 additional sets of teeth, including anterior and posterior tricuspids. Their tooth enamel is thinner than other species, making it easier to get cavities. Thus it is imperative that Hefestians make regular visits for sealant on their teeth.
Klingons are one of the most well-documented races in Federation history. Their most recognized feature is their cartilaginous exoskeleton, the most visible of which starts at the forehead and continues over the skull and down the spine. The exoskeleton also appears on the chest and feet of a Klingon. On average, Klingons are larger and stronger than most other humanoids and have a much lower tolerance for colder climates. Their blood is violet and magnesium-based, alone among the known species. It can contain ribosomes that are compatible for transfusion with a Romulan.
Internally, Klingon anatomy is distinct in its redundancy, a principle called brak’lul. This allows them to survive severe injuries in battle. They possess twenty three ribs on either side, two livers, an eight chambered heart, three lungs, and multiple stomachs and have redundant neural functions. This is believed to give them greater stamina on the battlefield.
Klingons have very similar nutritional requirements to humans though Klingons have a digestive system capable of using both raw and live food. Usually, a toxin that would kill a human would kill a Klingon. Women carry their children for 30 weeks, though with mixed species the gestation period is shorter. Klingons are not able to conceive children with many other species without medical intervention, though Klingon hybrids are able to have children with full Klingons. When a conception between a Klingon and another species takes place, the metabolism sometimes clashes especially with humans, causing biochemical fluctuations in the mother which may lead to fainting. Klingon ridges remain dominant for several generations, even with a single ancestor. A child even 1/4 Klingon still possess the forehead ridges if he or she carries the gene, though most probably not the ones on the chest and feet.
Klingon children mature far quicker than most other species and at the age of one year a Klingon child appears to be the same age as a human four-year-old. By the age of eight, a Klingon has the maturity level of a human of sixteen. When the child begins to grow into an adult, they go through a form of Klingon form of puberty called jak’tahla. Klingons live for over 150 years but even into advanced old age they are still strong enough for combat. Klingons emit a natural musk that some races find repugnant. They also have excellent battlefield instincts, as evidenced by the ability to look into the eyes of their opponent and sense the decision to kill.
Kriosians are almost identical to their ancestors, the Valtese. Their blood is iron-based, and able to use many of the medicines used in Deltans and Betazoids. Their brains have a component that is capable of producing a neurotransmitter which is what enables metamorphs to change their personality based on the personalities around them. It is also a growth hormone that fades after a certain point in the metamorph’s life. Male metamorphs are somewhat common, yet female metamorphs are born only once every seven generations. Metamorphs of both genders experience finiis’ral, a stage in their development when their neurotransmitter fades completely over a period of two days and the metamorph’s personality would be permanent, as would their sexual maturity. Kriosians achieve physical maturity at around 20 years of age, and the women carry their children for nine months, or 41 weeks, similar to a human. Their bone and muscle mass are similar to other humanoids, as are their senses. However, they are able to eat a much wider array of food than most species due to extra biochemical produced in the stomach and intestines.
Orions are known for their distinctive green skin which is colored by their dark green blood. They are typically taller than the average human and thicker, though the males are more muscular and the women more curvy. Orion females are very animalistic in nature and known for their extreme carnal appetites and pheromones which are stronger than those of Deltans yet they are not the same. The highly potent pheromones accelerate the metabolism of men of many species and raise the adrenaline production to dangerous levels which causes aggression and ultimately a form of delusion. Human females react negatively to the pheromones, experiencing headaches, and Vulcans of both genders are immune. Orion body chemistry is similar to Vulcans and Romulans, which could be why Vulcans are immune to the deleterious effects of Orion women. Their nervous system, however, is similar to a human as is their digestive system. Their stomachs and intestines are capable of digesting more red meat than a human, and they eat more meat than a human, though they do eat fruit, vegetables, and grains. Both genders have denser skeletons than a human and are as strong as Klingons if they keep in shape.
Due to their pointed ears, Romulans possess better hearing than a human or Deltan yet their sight is similar. Their blood is copper-based, and thus they are able to have blood transfusions with species such as Orions and Vulcans and are able to be prescribed the same medications. Their brains have a part called the mesiofrontal cortex which, in their ancestors the Vulcans, is used to suppress emotions yet has no known purpose in Romulans. Romulan skeletons are less dense than that of a Vulcan, but denser than that of a human and their skulls have two prominent brow ridges above the bridge of the nose, forming a V-shape on the forehead though a minority of Romulans lack these ridges. Romulans differ from their Vulcan cousins in several ways; for example the heart is gray in color and the subtle internal physiological differences between them to distinguish a single Romulan from among a Vulcan crew. Other physical differences include ribosomes in the blood and synapses. Romulans carry their children for 6 months and are able to mate successfully with other species such as human, Klingon, and Vulcan. The Romulan heart is where a human’s liver would be, in the right side, and the liver is where the stomach would be, putting the stomach higher in the chest where it is protected by the ribs.
Tellarites are a porcine race and thus are similar to pigs, boars, and other pig-like animals in some ways. Their legs have both knees and hocks, and they walk on two toes which have the hoof-like nails. Their hands have three thick fingers which have very thick fingernails, and they have one intestine. Their stomachs make additional bacteria, enabling them to digest nearly any food and have a lining on their tongues that allows their mouths to chew said food and find a much wider array of food palatable than most humanoids do. Their bowels are also much sturdier than those of other species to accommodate the wide variety of food they eat. They require quite a lot of food and are very stout though they are stronger on average than the human norm. Their bones are quite a bit denser than most humanoids and they have 17 ribs on either side. Their skin is thicker and thus less sensitive than most humanoids, though their senses of hearing and smell are quite better than other species. Their eyesight, however, is less developed than that of humans. Their blood is iron-based and doctors tend to administer some of the same medications as they would for a Caitian, Betazoid, or Deltan.
Most Trill are distinguished by two rows of dark spots going down each side of their body, from forehead to toe though the color of most of their skin could vary greatly. These spots will itch when the body comes in contact with an allergen, thus signaling a need for an antihistamine. Joined Trill are particularly allergic to insect bites as the venom reacts with the isoboramine between host and symbiont. It is this ability to host a symbiont that the Trill species is most known for, made possible by the large quantities of the neurotransmitter isoboramine. When the level of this biochemical falls below the needed levels, the joining of host and symbiont dissolves, resulting in the death of both unless each is reimplanted with another host/symbiont as they are dependent upon each other 93 hours into the joining. Their digestive tract is similar to a human’s or Bajoran’s, though they have much more mass due to their denser skeletons and stronger muscles. The skeleton of a Trill woman could weigh as much as the entire body of a Bajoran woman. Trill women carry their children for 11 months, and their children reach maturity around 34 years. Trill have four teeth more than the average thirty-two, and have somewhat thicker enamel than most humanoids, meaning it is harder to get cavities, though they still need to have sealant on their teeth.
Vulcan physiology is similar to three other species since these peoples had migrated from Vulcan in the distant past. Vulcan brains have a feature called the mesiofrontal cortex which is the part of the brain that aids in suppressing emotions. They are also capable of limited telepathy, primarily touch telepathy, as they have moderate amounts of metabiaxin in their neurochemistry, though less than other species. Some Vulcans have higher levels of this neurotransmitter and thus are able to communicate with Betazoids, Aenar, and other telepathic species. This transmitter is absent in most other Vulcanoids.
The heart is located where a human’s liver would be and beats several hundred times a minute, the liver where the stomach would be, putting the stomach higher to be protected by the rib cage. Vulcans are fully capable of digesting meat, though they do not consume it. The Vulcan digestive system is highly adaptable as it can quickly adapt to more fully digest food that initially disagrees with them. Their metabolism is much faster and more efficient than a human’s and caffeine and sapotoxins have little to no effect on them.
However, unlike an Andorian or Tellarite, they are capable of surviving without food or sleep for long periods and without water for several days. Under stress, a Vulcan could go without sleep for over a week, some for as long as three weeks. However, this faster metabolism makes them very sensitive to anesthizine, nitrous oxide, and other anesthetic gases. Vulcan body chemistry contains less sodium chloride than that of humans, meaning they need to eat less salt. Their blood is green and copper-based, similar to other Vulcanoids and Orions. This causes the slight greenish tint to their skin.
They have three set of additional teeth which most humanoids do not and the enamel in thinner, though not as thin as Romulans. This increases the need to have sealant put on their teeth to prevent decay. The Vulcan respiratory system is highly efficient as it is needed to extract oxygen from their homeworld’s thin atmosphere and they are most comfortable in the higher temperatures, and Vulcans in extreme old age are more sensitive to lower temperatures.
Vulcans have two sets of eyelids, the standard set that covers the eyeball and the inner eyelids, that protect the cornea from harsh light. They have very sharp hearing and the women have a heightened sense of smell, creating the need for olfactory anesthetics to numb due to the fact that Vulcan women find a human’s natural scent repulsive. Vulcans have a good deal more mass than humans and other species, due to their superior strength and their denser skeletons and they also have considerably faster reflexes.
Some, though not all, of this material was found in the wiki Memory Alpha.